Radio MAK Noise Estimator
2003, 2004 All rights reserved, Updated Oct 9, 04

Description: This noise estimator is intended as an aid to performing rough order of magnitude estimates for radio links. Noise sources considered are thermal, galactic, and atmospheric. Thermal noise is based on a simple KTB calculation, while galactic noise is a very crude estimate based on general trends for lesser noise density areas and greater areas, i.e., toward galactic center. A yet more crude estimate is supplied for atmospheric noise, potentially useful for part of the HF range.
Use: The user enters effective temperature, bandwidth, impedance, and frequency, replacing default values pre-entered as an example. Clicking "calculate" causes noise Power (dbW) and voltage estimate results to be updated for noise sources considered.
"Disclaimer": The crude nature of these estimates cannot be over-emphasized, so the user is cautioned that the results are appropriate for initial rough estimates only. Atmospheric noise estimates are particularly crude, and are unlikely to be useful at all outside the 10-30 MHz range. A helpful suggestion from one user is that man-made noise must also be considered in many applications, not only at HF and below, but also in ISM bands.
Note the links below may be of some value for related estimates as well, e.g., the RadioMAK power density calculator as well as external links.

Effective temp (K)

BandWidth (KHz)

Impedance (ohm)

Frequency (MHz)

KTB (dbW)

KTB (Voltage)

Gal max (dbW)

Gal max (Voltage)

Gal min (dbW)

Gal min (Voltage)

Atmos (dbW)

Atmos (Voltage)

Estimates above (in dbW and voltage) are for thermal (ktb), galactic (high and low bounds), and atmospheric noise (atmospheric general trend representative only in 10-30 MHz range).

Related Radio MAK Page: Power Density Calculator

Related link: Topo Info
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